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Excellent summary, excellent examples! Would be nice to see a specific link and shout out to Dr. Linda B. Nilson concerning Specs grading rather than assuming the reader already knows all about it I think (Inside Higher Ed article here: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2016/01/19/new-ways-grade-more-effectively-essay). Specs Grading and Contract grading do seem to overlap quit a bit. Generally speaking, Specs grading focuses on "bundles" of assignments ALL of which must be passed at a proficient level (grade wise = 80-85) in order to earn the respective grade. Contract courses can do that too, but the ones I've seen at least allow for more student choice (e.g. choose 10 of these 20 to earn a C, choose 15 for a B choose 18 for an A, along with corresponding quality). Just my experience. I'm curious how others see any difference between Specs Grading and Contract grading. I suppose the use of a certain number of tokens also distinguishes it from Contract and Competency based though they could also use that strategy they just don't often do so.

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