Thanks for this. I always struggle with how (and whether, since no one has told me I'm required to) incorporate plus and minus grades.

One question: how do these work for students who have earned an 'A' with the base system? For instance, do they need to take the final exam or they drop to an 'A-'? But, presumably they need only perform better than the minus cut off? They don't need to hit the plus threshold to maintain the 'A'?

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Yes, what you've described is how I usually address final exams for students who've already earned an "A". They don't need to do stellar on the final exam, but they need to show they've retained enough of the material not to earn the "minus" grade.

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